The average cost for putting a new plant variety on the market is 1 to 1.5 million €, and it takes 10 or 12 years to do so.
Here is an example regarding the breeding of vegetable varieties.
For example, in order to get the Veery variety of wheat, it was necessary to experiment with 3170 crosses between 51 different parent plants in 21 countries
Selection of pure lines for self-pollination
Annual crops 6-7 years / Biannual crops 7-14 years