The average cost for placing a new plant variety on the market is 1.5 to 2 million €, and it takes 10 or 12 years to do so.
Here is an example regarding the breeding of a vegetable variety.
Another example: in order to get the “Veery” variety of wheat, it was necessary to experiment with 3170 crosses between 51 different parent plants in 21 countries.
Selection of pure lines for self-pollination
Annual crops 6-7 years / Biannual crops 7-14 years